business strategy Prophet Muhammad s.a.w.

9 11 2008

Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. response to the problems faced by customers. Messenger s.a.w. said: “God loves those who easily in the sale, purchase, repayment and billing. He who gives to the people of the suspension of the (to pay the debt) or lead to, then God will menghisabnya with penghisaban the light. Whoever receives the purchase back from those who deplore purchase, cancel, Allah (remove) admitted on the Day of Resurrection. “(Bukhari and Muslim). Similarly, the problem that occurs on other people, the Prophet Muhammad still help solve the problem. From Jabir r.a. he said: “Abdullah ibn ‘Amr ibn Harani died while he has the debt. I ask you please to warn him. So that those who deign mempiutanginya relieve debt. Prophet s.a.w. Delivering a request to them, but they would not fulfilling. The Prophet said, said to me, “Go thou set the dates various! Ajwah part and ‘Azqa Zaid. Then tell to me when finished. “So what are the Prophet of Allah, I was doing, and after he finished kuberitahukan to. He sits above or in the middle of the palm, and he said, “Well, gantanglah for people who berpiutang it.” Then I gantangi and I give them adequate to each kurmaku fact that no less a matter of it back. “

Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. offers a selection of products in the market. From Ibn Umar ra, from the Messenger of Allah., That he said: “When two people have to make selling and buying, then each one of them can khiyar (choose) for they have not separated, and both are still together, or one of them khiyar gave to the other, and both have to make selling and buying on the basis of khiyar it, then buy and sell it to be done on the case. If they have been separated after conducting trading, which is one not to leave (the place) selling and buying. So, buy and sell it to be valid so. “(Bukhari). Similarly from Ibn Umar pleased, he said the Prophet said. Said: “Two people who buy and sell during khiyar can not separate the two, or one of them says to the other,” choose “And he can also be said,” Or buying and selling with khiyar. “Kata Nafi ‘” Ibn Umar never buy something when disenanginya, he soon parted with impressive





STRATEGY human resources

9 11 2008
Human Resources Strategy
Human resource development strategies include human resource planning, recruitment and selection of human resources, training and human resource development, performance evaluation, compensation and maintenance of human resources.
7.2.1. Human Resources Planning
Human resource planning refers to the company to identify the implications of human resources in the orgasasi and changes in the main business issues that can combine with the human resources needs that resulted from these changes and issues.
Phase in the planning of human resources include the identification of key business issues, determine the implications of human resources, to develop targets and goals of human resources and evaluate human resources.
CEO of General Electric, Jeffrey Immelt each year to provide time to around one month from one business to another business to help the planning process streategis human resources.

Figure 7:38. Jeffrey Immelt

The BMW Group in human resources planning to use the concept of “Today for tomorrow”, which includes the five cases, the qualifications and skills needs and long-term future, work environment-oriented future, health management, communication and social model based pension needs.

Figure 7:39. Helmut Panke, Chairman and CEO of BMW

7.2.2. Recruitment, selection and placement Resources
Human
The recruitment and selection is the search a number of prospective employees who qualify in a certain amount so they can qualify from the most appropriate person to fill the jobs that exist. While the placement relates to a person with a matching position was to be based on the needs of the department and the knowledge, skills, abilities, preferences and personality are employees. Singapore Airlines is the world admired company, which ranks 17 in 2007, recruit individuals to choose the dynamic and brilliant and after that melatihnya.

Figure 7:40. Singapore Airlines stewardess

Procter & Gamble recruit precedence to support the research and development. No other factors are more important to achieve the success of research and development. Those are grown in this part to the research and development have high effectiveness.

7.2.3. Socialization, training and Development Resources
Human
Socialization, training and development of a business organization that deliberately done to improve performance now and that will come with the ability to improve. Socialization refers to the philosophy and culture to teach about how companies do business. Training refers to the improvement of skills needed now or soon appear. Meanwhile, referring to the increase in the development of skills in the long term.
Socialization process started since before becoming permanent employees or contract karywan. Socialization-employees can create a loyal employee, if done properly. Companies such as General Electric, Wal-Mart, Procter and Gamble, Google, Apple do with good socialization.
The main objective is the lack of training, both current and future, which cause employees to work under the desired standard. Training is important for employees of companies that productivity decreased or remained juanclaudio username is also to the new technology or new business strategy.
Development activities to prepare employees for career advancement will be there, even if it has not been identified. Development activities also ensure that employees eligible for the position that their ex-her.
BMW Group to cost around 200 million euros per year for training and development in the ration to maintain the sustainability of professionalism. Singapore Airlines to train human resources to achieve personal and professional competence with the highest standards of budgeted cost of 125 million dollars per year.

Figure 7:41. Singapore Airlines stewardess professional

At Procter & Gamble’s extensive training programs to prepare personnel for the engineering and project success and personal guard to control the latest technology. The program includes training the leadership of the self-directed staff in the juniors who have high potential, and training to manage the process of global innovation, internal technical symposiums to share personal experiences and have the discipline to maintain the technical front, a global electronic communications system for sharing knowledge and liberal policies for the attend meetings outside of the professional community and other technical meetings.

7.2.4. Performance Rating
Rating refers to the performance of a system of formal and structured the measure, assess and influence the attributes associated with the work, including the results of behavior and absenteeism. The focus is to know how a productive employee and whether the employee can perform the same or more effective in the future, so that employees, community organizations and all benefits.
Pepsi Cola in the assessment of the performance associated with business needs, namely to accelerate growth and increase corporate growth in the global market. To achieve the target company to conduct an evaluation to the top and bottom end of the performance evaluation. This performance evaluation shows a lack of training in the corporation, because it shows the lack of assessment skills of human resources at Pepsi Cola. Evaluation of performance in the Pepsi Cola also be used as a strategy to develop a career karyawal. Pepsi Cola have new opportunities and potential movement, which consists of five factors are evaluated, the results of the work that has been proven, leadership skills, functional distinction, knowledge of business and penglaman key. “I was forced by the opportunity to lead the Pepsi Cola” said President of Pepsi Cola Indra K. Nooyi.

Figure 7:42. President of Pepsi Cola, Indra K. Nooyi
7.2.5. Compensation
Compensation system consists of financial compensation and compensation nonfinansial. Compensation involves the assessment of monetary contributions to employees’ compensation directly and distribute the compensation is not directly reasonable and fair.
Financial compensation has the purpose to attract potential job applicants, employees who maintain the quality, achieve a competitive advantage, improve productivity, facilitate strategic targets, and mengokohkan determine the organizational structure and make payments according to the rule of law. Financial compensation consists of compensation and the compensation is not direct.
While compensation nonfinansial includes career and social benefits that are often highly valued by employees. Career benefits include security, development, career flexibility and career opportunities. Benefits include social status symbol, praise and recognition, comfort and companionship duties.
At Procter & Gamble, employees at the research and development benefits and awards were given in accordance with their kontrubusi through financial compensation and compensation nonfinansial, namely promotion and kebebesan to select projects and financial support for their projects.

Figure 7:43. CEO of Procter & Gamble, Allan G. Lafley
7.2.6. Maintenance of Human Resources
Maintenance of human resources include the safety and health of workers and the relationship kekaryawanan. Safety and health working conditions pointing to the physiological and psychological, physical labor caused by the working environment provided by the company.
BMW Group design work both in the production office ergonomi and to help avoid physical pressure. BMW even invest more than 25 million euros in the design of ergonomi to optimize the work in the factory in Munich during the product launch of the new BMW 3 Series. Similarly, the factory is available in every arena of sport and fitness for life long health program that promotes health awareness and help to detect employee of the hospital.

Figure 7:44. BMW factory in Munich

REFERENCES

Barney, Jay B. 2007. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantages. Third Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Carpenter, Mason R. and Sanders, WM. Gerard. 2007. Strategic Management: A Dynamic Perspective, International Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Case, John. 1989, The Origins of Entrepreneurship, Inc.., June, p. 52

Crainer, Stuart. 1999, The 75 Greatest Management decisions you ever Made, New York: Amacom Publishing.

Cravens, David W. and Piercy, Nigel F. 2006. Strategic Marketing, Eighth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

David, Fred R. 2007. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Eleventh Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Millek, Gegory G., Lumpkin, G. T., Taylor, Marilyn L. 2005. Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages. Second Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goldstein, Arnold S. 1991. Starting on a Shoestring: Building a Business Without a Bankroll, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Gross, Daniel, 1999, Forbes Greatest Business Stories of All Time, Professional Books

Hamel, Gary and Prahalad, C.K. 1994. Competing For The Future, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Hamel, Gary. 2000. Leading the Revolution, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Ingebretsen, Mark. 2003. Why Files Company, New York: Three Rivers Press.

Ivancevich, John. M. 2007. Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Johnson, C. Ray. 1998, the CEO of Logic: How to Think and Act Like a Chief Executive Officer, Career Press, Franklin Lake

Kim, W. Chan and Mouborgne, Renee. 2005. Blue Ocean Strategy, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Konopasek, Roger 2001. Roger’s Success magnets Adventures, LTD. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Kotler, Philip and Lee, Nancy. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Lynie Arden, Tom Nash, 2000. 101 Best Dot Coms To Start, New York: The Philip Lief Group.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., P. Wright M. 2007. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Pearce, John A. and Robinson, Richard B. 2007. Strategic Management: Fornulation, Implementation and Control. International Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pitts, Robert A. and Lei, David .. 2000. Strategic Management: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, Second Edition, Cincinnati: South Western College Publishing.

Porter, Michael E. 1985. Competitive Advantages. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Price, Christopher. 2000, The Internet Entrepreneurs, New Jersey: Pearson Education limited

Ries, Jack Trout and Al. 2001. Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2006. Making Globalization Work, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc..

Suyanto, M. 2004, Smart Entrepreneurs In: Learning from the success of the World Top Employers, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2006, the Revolutionary Organization: Empowering Spiritual intelligence, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2007, the Strategy Revolution: Changing Business Process detonating Company, Andi Yogyakarta.

Swasono, Sri-Edi, 2003. Exposes Ekonomika: Competence and Integrity Bachelor in Economics, Jakarta: UI-Press

Thomson, Arthur A., Strickland, AJ, Gamble, John E. 2007. Crafting & executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage. 15th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Vise, David A. and Malseed, Mark. 2005. The Google Story, New York: The Bantam Dell Publishing Group.

Wheelen, Thomas L. and Hunger, J. D. 2006. Strategic Management and Business Policy, Tenth Edition, New York: Prentice-Hall.

Wingo, Scot. 2005. eBay Strategies: 10 Proven Methode to Maximize Your eBay Business, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Venus, Danah, and Marshal, Ian. 2004. Spiritual Capital: Wealth We Can Live By Using Our Rational, emotional and Spiritual Intelligence to Transform Ourselves and Corporate Calture, London: Bloombury Publishing plc.

Zimmerer, Thomas W. and Scarborough, Norman M. , 1998, Essential of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, Prentice-Hall, Inc..

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FINANCIAL STRATEGY

9 11 2008

FINANCIAL STRATEGY
M. Suyanto
http://www.msuyanto.com

Financial 7.3.Strategi
Financial strategy aimed at the use of financial resources to support business strategy, both long term and short term. This strategy includes the financial capital acquisition strategy, capital allocation, diveden allocation and management of working capital.
The acquisition of capital usually involves consideration the reasonable cost of capital, the proportion of short-term debt and long-term, the desired balance between internal and external funding, risks and limitations of ownership and the level and form of a lease that must be used. Microsoft to develop the company do shares with a sales price of 21 dollars and 28 dollars closed in 1986. Microsoft’s stock price reached the peak price of 119 dollars in 1999.
Capital allocation priorities include the consideration to the allocation of capital projects, the basic selection of the end of the project and the allocation of capital is allowed without the approval of operational managers managers higher. Microsoft does not share dividend from 18 September 1987 until 16 January 2003. Capital that are used for a project to develop the Microsoft Office launched in 1989 and Windows 3.0, which is issued in 1990. In 1993 the Windows NT 3:01 and in 1995 launched Windows 95 equipped with Internet Explorer and MSN (Microsoft Network). In 1996 the Windows CE.1.0. and in 1997 launched the Internet Explorer 4.0. and in 1998 raised a Windows 98. Windows XP, released in 2001
The allocation of dividends and management of working capital include consideration of the division of the profit should be distributed as dividends, dividend stability, the form of dividends other than cash, cash flow needs, the minimum cash balance and the maximum credit policy, credit policy billing, the provisions and procedures of payment. Berkshire Hathaway more pressure on the company’s net wealth rather than allocate greater dividends in the division, such as AOL Time Garnet, Exxon Mobil and Toyota.

Figure 7:45. Katsuaki Watanabe

Toyota Motor Company on 31 March 2007 net profit to total 23.95 trillion yen, an increase of 13.8% compared to the previous fiscal year. Contribution of positive operating income of 720.0 billion yen from 330.0 billion consists yen from marketing efforts, 290.0 yen from the positive effects of exchange rate changes in foreign currency and 100 billion yen from cost reduction efforts. Toyota Motor Company to share half profit as cash dividends for the six months worth of 70 yen per share, up 15% compared to the past period, so the total dividend paid a full year is 120 yen perlembar shares. President of Toyota Motor Company, Katsuaki Watanabe, said: “The result is the ratio of dividends distributed increased from 21.3% to 23.4%, continually trying to get to our target of 30%.”

REFERENCES

Barney, Jay B. 2007. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantages. Third Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Carpenter, Mason R. and Sanders, WM. Gerard. 2007. Strategic Management: A Dynamic Perspective, International Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Case, John. 1989, The Origins of Entrepreneurship, Inc.., June, p. 52

Crainer, Stuart. 1999, The 75 Greatest Management decisions you ever Made, New York: Amacom Publishing.

Cravens, David W. and Piercy, Nigel F. 2006. Strategic Marketing, Eighth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

David, Fred R. 2007. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Eleventh Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Millek, Gegory G., Lumpkin, G. T., Taylor, Marilyn L. 2005. Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages. Second Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goldstein, Arnold S. 1991. Starting on a Shoestring: Building a Business Without a Bankroll, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Gross, Daniel, 1999, Forbes Greatest Business Stories of All Time, Professional Books

Hamel, Gary and Prahalad, C.K. 1994. Competing For The Future, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Hamel, Gary. 2000. Leading the Revolution, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Ingebretsen, Mark. 2003. Why Files Company, New York: Three Rivers Press.

Ivancevich, John. M. 2007. Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Johnson, C. Ray. 1998, the CEO of Logic: How to Think and Act Like a Chief Executive Officer, Career Press, Franklin Lake

Kim, W. Chan and Mouborgne, Renee. 2005. Blue Ocean Strategy, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Konopasek, Roger 2001. Roger’s Success magnets Adventures, LTD. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Kotler, Philip and Lee, Nancy. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Lynie Arden, Tom Nash, 2000. 101 Best Dot Coms To Start, New York: The Philip Lief Group.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., P. Wright M. 2007. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Pearce, John A. and Robinson, Richard B. 2007. Strategic Management: Fornulation, Implementation and Control. International Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pitts, Robert A. and Lei, David .. 2000. Strategic Management: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, Second Edition, Cincinnati: South Western College Publishing.

Porter, Michael E. 1985. Competitive Advantages. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Price, Christopher. 2000, The Internet Entrepreneurs, New Jersey: Pearson Education limited

Ries, Jack Trout and Al. 2001. Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2006. Making Globalization Work, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc..

Suyanto, M. 2004, Smart Entrepreneurs In: Learning from the success of the World Top Employers, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2006, the Revolutionary Organization: Empowering Spiritual intelligence, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2007, the Strategy Revolution: Changing Business Process detonating Company, Andi Yogyakarta.

Swasono, Sri-Edi, 2003. Exposes Ekonomika: Competence and Integrity Bachelor in Economics, Jakarta: UI-Press

Thomson, Arthur A., Strickland, AJ, Gamble, John E. 2007. Crafting & executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage. 15th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Vise, David A. and Malseed, Mark. 2005. The Google Story, New York: The Bantam Dell Publishing Group.

Wheelen, Thomas L. and Hunger, J. D. 2006. Strategic Management and Business Policy, Tenth Edition, New York: Prentice-Hall.

Wingo, Scot. 2005. eBay Strategies: 10 Proven Methode to Maximize Your eBay Business, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Venus, Danah, and Marshal, Ian. 2004. Spiritual Capital: Wealth We Can Live By Using Our Rational, emotional and Spiritual Intelligence to Transform Ourselves and Corporate Calture, London: Bloombury Publishing plc.

Zimmerer, Thomas W. and Scarborough, Norman M. , 1998, Essential of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Manag





OPERATION STRATEGY

9 11 2008

7.4.Strategi Operation
Operating strategy is a strategy to change the inputs (raw materials, material support, human machine) to the output of value. Operating strategies must be coordinated with marketing strategies, human resource strategies and financial strategies. Strategy relates to the operation of facilities and equipment, resources and planning and controlling operations.

7.4.1. Facilities and Equipment
Components of facilities and equipment related to the location of the factory, the size of factories, equipment and facilities that support the empowerment of business strategy and other functional strategies. Toyota Motor Company mendirikann factory in Texas, built in 2003 and completed in 2006, is designed to increase Toyota Production System (polling stations), with consideration as a pilot in the industrial quality, efficiency and advanced technology to achieve a new level. “The facilities we will introduce a number of production that the patent is now making cars and the level of information that must be owned right now. More important is to build a pilot for the Toyota Production System, which will make the network how many of the 21 sparate parts and components supplier can be combined and integrated in one place. Toyota Tundra’s Texas plant-TMMTX will be the first car factory, which integrates the supplier, production facilities in the same place in a few things under the same roof as a car manufacturer that the main “said Don Jackson, vice president of quality and production TMMTX.

Figure 7:46. Toyota factory in Texas

7.4.2. Resources
Components include the resources necessary resources, selected suppliers, relationships with suppliers and the level of purchases in the future. Toyota factory in Texas to use this source sparate part, 80% comes from local, because the Tundra production of one location with this factory to provide the facilities to produce sparate part, so the cost is very small and logistiknya part sparate originating from Japan only 20%. Similarly, Toyota can reduce the steel components of car components from 610 to be 500 parts. Thus the production cost can be pressed, the Toyota can rely on low-cost strategy.

7.4.3. Production Planning and Control.
Components of planning and controlling operations include scheduling, the level of demand, supply level, the key point of control, job specialization, security and the use of factory quality standards. The companies most admired in the world of planning and controlling operations many apply Six Sigma, for example, General Electric, Motorola, Honeywell and others. Six Sigma is a goal that is almost perfect in meeting customer requirements. Six Sigma refers to the target operating performance, as measured by the statistics with only 3.4 errors per million activities. Six Sigma is also a business culture that changes the position of the company in customer satisfaction, profitability and competitiveness is greater. Six Sigma is a system of comprehensive and flexible to achieve, maintain and maximize business success, which is controlled by a unique understanding of the strong customer demand, the discipline of data, facts and statistics analysis and careful attention to manage, and improve business process re-instill .

7.3.Strategi Research and Development

Strategy research and development consists of the basic research and product development and process, the scope of time, compliance with the company and form the basis of research.
Research and basic research and product development process concerning new and breakthrough innovation, product development, product improvement, modifications, products, processes and operations important new project to support the growth of the company. Procter & Gamble invested 4% of total sales worldwide for research and development with more than 7,500 scientists, including a PhD in 1250 titled the work on 22 research centers in 12 countries worldwide. Procter & Gamble holds more than 24,000 patents worldwide and the average received a patent more than 3,800 per year. Procter & Gamble a company that has a patent on the world’s most followed by Intel, Lucent and Microsoft.
Coverage includes the consideration of the short term or long-term orientation of business strategy or operational strategies. Procter & Gamble to do research and sustainable development. This is evidenced by statements from top management of Procter & Gamble, which committed a total innovation in technology to provide ongoing emphasis on the superior product. R.R. Deupree, Chairman of the 1948-1959 states “Competition is hidden from laboratoriun currently is the key to successful compete and grow in the future.” John G. Smale in the 1986-1990 Chairman stated “Our objective is to become the world leader in the field of science and technology relevant to each category we compete in”. Edwin L. Artzt, Chairman of the 1990-1995 states “Technology is indeed the control of our business. For the company’s main challenge is to maintain leadership in technology. ” John Pepper, Chairman of the Executive Committee 1995 – 2000 states “People think Procter & Gamble as a marketing company, but our first and leading the company as a research and development. Research and development is the life blood of our business. ” Meanwhile, Alan G. Lafley, Chairman and CEO, currently states “Innovation is our life blood, new ideas and new products that make life better customers, build sales and profits customers and build market share for Procter & Gamble, sales, profits and income shareholders as a whole” .

John Pepper

Conformity with the company and form the basis of research include the option attack strategy, lead the industry in strategy or survive, reaksis react to competitors. Procter & Gamble’s strategy to use or attack the lead in the industry. Research and development activities at Procter & Gamble is fully integrated into overall business operations. Each business unit has a department of product development related to business needs. Research and development together with the responsible conduct of research to marketing to customer needs. Together with the general management and marketing, research and development to build strategic direction for each business company.
7.4.Internet and Functional Strategy

The existence of the Internet makes creating geographic boundaries do not mean. The emergence of the Internet era, companies appear with a company called E-Business. Functional strategy of E-Business, which includes Customer Relationship Management, Enterprise Resource Planning and Supplay Chain Management.

Submission of Gartner CRM Innovator Award

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) applications is the Cross-functional E-Business and mengotomatiskan integrate the various services customers in the process of selling, direct marketing, account and order management, customer support and service. GBC company is a company that won the award Gartner CRM Innovator Award. Meanwhile, BNSF Railway Company won the award in the Excellent Enterprise CRM.

Excellent in the delivery of the CRM Enterprise Award

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) is the backbone of the E-Business or equivalent to the operating system business, such as the Windows operating system for back-office operations. Enterprise Resource Planning CFES is serving as a framework to integrate and mengotomatiskan various business processes that must be done in the manufacturing, logistics, distribution, accounting, financial and human resources from a business.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) is the practice of management and information technology to optimize the flow of information between products and processes, and business partners in a supply chain. Supply Chain is a network of business process and interrelasi between the business needed to build, sell, and deliver a product to the customer end.

RFID is used in the SCM Wal-Mart

REFERENCES

Barney, Jay B. 2007. Gaining and Sustaining Competitive Advantages. Third Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Carpenter, Mason R. and Sanders, WM. Gerard. 2007. Strategic Management: A Dynamic Perspective, International Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Case, John. 1989, The Origins of Entrepreneurship, Inc.., June, p. 52

Crainer, Stuart. 1999, The 75 Greatest Management decisions you ever Made, New York: Amacom Publishing.

Cravens, David W. and Piercy, Nigel F. 2006. Strategic Marketing, Eighth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

David, Fred R. 2007. Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, Eleventh Edition, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Millek, Gegory G., Lumpkin, G. T., Taylor, Marilyn L. 2005. Strategic Management: Creating Competitive Advantages. Second Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Goldstein, Arnold S. 1991. Starting on a Shoestring: Building a Business Without a Bankroll, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Gross, Daniel, 1999, Forbes Greatest Business Stories of All Time, Professional Books

Hamel, Gary and Prahalad, C.K. 1994. Competing For The Future, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Hamel, Gary. 2000. Leading the Revolution, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Ingebretsen, Mark. 2003. Why Files Company, New York: Three Rivers Press.

Ivancevich, John. M. 2007. Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Johnson, C. Ray. 1998, the CEO of Logic: How to Think and Act Like a Chief Executive Officer, Career Press, Franklin Lake

Kim, W. Chan and Mouborgne, Renee. 2005. Blue Ocean Strategy, Boston: Harvard Business School Corporation.

Konopasek, Roger 2001. Roger’s Success magnets Adventures, LTD. Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta

Kotler, Philip and Lee, Nancy. 2005. Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc..

Lynie Arden, Tom Nash, 2000. 101 Best Dot Coms To Start, New York: The Philip Lief Group.

Noe, R.A., Hollenbeck, J.R., Gerhart, B., P. Wright M. 2007. Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, Tenth Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill

Pearce, John A. and Robinson, Richard B. 2007. Strategic Management: Fornulation, Implementation and Control. International Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Pitts, Robert A. and Lei, David .. 2000. Strategic Management: Building and Sustaining Competitive Advantage, Second Edition, Cincinnati: South Western College Publishing.

Porter, Michael E. 1985. Competitive Advantages. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Price, Christopher. 2000, The Internet Entrepreneurs, New Jersey: Pearson Education limited

Ries, Jack Trout and Al. 2001. Positioning: The Battle for Your Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Stiglitz, Joseph E. 2006. Making Globalization Work, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc..

Suyanto, M. 2004, Smart Entrepreneurs In: Learning from the success of the World Top Employers, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2006, the Revolutionary Organization: Empowering Spiritual intelligence, Andi Yogyakarta

Suyanto, M. 2007, the Strategy Revolution: Changing Business Process detonating Company, Andi Yogyakarta.

Swasono, Sri-Edi, 2003. Exposes Ekonomika: Competence and Integrity Bachelor in Economics, Jakarta: UI-Press

Thomson, Arthur A., Strickland, AJ, Gamble, John E. 2007. Crafting & executing Strategy: The Quest for Competitive Advantage. 15th Edition, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Vise, David A. and Malseed, Mark. 2005. The Google Story, New York: The Bantam Dell Publishing Group.

Wheelen, Thomas L. and Hunger, J. D. 2006. Strategic Management and Business Policy, Tenth Edition, New York: Prentice-Hall.

Wingo, Scot. 2005. eBay Strategies: 10 Proven Methode to Maximize Your eBay Business, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Professional Technical Reference

Venus, Danah, and Marshal, Ian. 2004. Spiritual Capital: Wealth We Can Live By Using Our Rational, emotional and Spiritual Intelligence to Transform Ourselves and Corporate Calture, London: Bloombury Publishing plc.

Zimmerer, Thomas W. and Scarborough, Norman M. , 1998, Essential of Entrepreneurship and Small Business Management, Prentice-Hall, Inc..





SALES PROMOTION STRATEGY-2

9 11 2008

Tools Business Promotion

Tools include the promotion business conventions and trade exhibitions, sales incentives, advertising cooperation, trade wages, free merchandise and training assistance. Campaign sales goals requires the determination of election equipment, development, test introduction and implementation of sales promotion programs, and evaluate the results.
Conventions and trade exhibitions held by industry associations. Companies that sell products or services purchased showrooms (stand) to demonstrate and display their products at the trade exhibition. Gaikindo often facilitate the conduct of its members with the exhibition, shown in Figure 1:12. Similarly, as the market leader Solahart water heater strategy is the main exhibition can be as meeting with consumers and can give detailed explanation.

Figure 1:12.

Sales incentives have two common forms, namely the form of money and motivation to contest the sale. And the motivation wiraniaga receive the form of money in the form of additional compensation to encourage sales of business more aggressively against some of the products. Motivating the form of money is appropriate for individual sales as a significant part of the business of marketing the form of money and motivation needed to trigger a commitment from wiraniaga dealer. This method is expensive and must be used carefully to avoid the ethical and legal problems. Contests involving a dealer or wiraniaga aims to encourage them to increase sales in a certain period. For the sale of personal achievement that has special to be able to obtain money, leisure, computer or other prizes.
Ads are ads that cooperation arranged so that the company and penyalurnya agree to pay for ads for a specific product. Cooperation is a method of ad sales promotions are very popular among resellers. NOKIA E90 Communicator uses the fish in cooperation with the CBN, INDOSAT, Telkomsel, XL, 3 and IGUANASMS. Is the theme of cooperation Work Smarter together. Ad cooperation is shown in Figure 1:13.

Figure 1:13.

Wages are usually a reduction in trading price of the dealer. Wages are the reduction of the purchase price for the purchase of a product in a certain amount and in a certain period. Goals from wages to affect trade channeling action in specific sales.
Free merchandise provided by the company to provide discounts from the dealer based on the amount of purchase. Company provides free goods to reduce the cost as compensation to the distributors, because to do activities that help the company.
Assistance provided training to employees of the company’s resellers. This is done if the product is marketed product rather complex.

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STRATEGI PUBLIC RELATIONS

9 11 2008

1.2. Strategi Hubungan Masyarakat (Public Relations)

Perusahaan menggunakan metode hubungan masyarakat (public realations) untuk menyampaikan pesan dan mencipta sikap, citra dan opini yang benar. Hubungan masyarakat (humas) merupakan salah satu alat promosi / komu­nikasi  yang  penting. Selama ini, humas tidak lebih dari  alat promosi / komunikasi yang paling sedikit digunakan, tetapi alat ini memiliki potensi besar untuk membangun kesadaran dan frekuensi di pasar, untuk memperkuat kembali posisi produk, dan untuk  memper­tahankan produk. Hubungan masyarakat (humasa) sering disamakan dengan publisitas. Padahal, publisitas itu hanya merupakan bagian dari hubungan masyarakat. Publisitas merupakan aktivitas perusahaan yang dirancang untuk memicu perhatian media melalui artikel, editorial dan berita baru yang diharapkan dapat membatu memelihara kesadaran, cara pandang dan citra yang dipikirkan masyarakat terhadap perusahaan menjadi tetap positif. Publisitas dapat digunakan dengan manfaat tunggal, mislanya meluncurkan produk baru atau mengurangi opini negatif yang terjadi. Publisitas dapat pula digunakan untuk manfaat ganda, misalnya memperbaiki beberapa aspek dalam aktivitas perusahaan.
Banyak perusahaan menggunakan humas pemasaran (marketing public realations) untuk melakukan promosi perusahaan atau produk dan membuat citra perusahaan dan produk. Humas pemasaran mempunyai peran antara lain :
Membantu dalam meluncurkan produk baru, misalnya Pantene meluncurkan produk baru Hair Fall Control untuk menjawab kebutuhan konsumen untuk mengurangi rambut rontok karena patah yang diklaim sampai 98 % dengan pemakaian teratur selama dua bulan. Pantene membagi ilmu seputar rambut rontok kepada pers yang untuk kasus wanita di Indonesia mengalami rambut rontok karena patah.
Membantu dalam melakukan penempatan posisi kembali produk yang sudah dewasa, misalnya yang dilakukan PT. Unilever Indonesia setelah mengakuisisi kecap Cap Bango pada 2001, Unilever melakukan reposisi kecap Cap Bango dengan melakukan lomba masak yang melibatkan ibu-ibu rumah tangga untuk Jakarta dan Jawa Barat. Kemudian dilanjutkan kegiatan Gerobak Sate Bango yang membidik pedagang makanan di pinggir jalan dan dilanjutkan Festival Jajanan Bango yang dimasukkan dalam acara televisi seperti sebelumnya yang dibawakan oleh Bondan Winarno, ahli kuliner Indonesia. Akhirnya kecap Cap Bango menjadi kecap yang posisi pangsa pasarnya peringkat dua.
Membangun minat dalam sebuah kategori produk, misalnya Maspion mengajak untuk membeli produk buatan Indonesia.
Mempengaruhi kelompok target yang spesifik, misalnya Extra Joss mensponsori Qurban 2 milyar dan kemudian buka bersama dengan 600 pedagang asongan se-Jabotabek, sehingga mendapat citra baik dari umat Islam. Extra Joss saat ini menempati peringkat pertama untuk kategori minuman penambah tenaga.
Mempertahankan produk yang mengalami masalah di masyarakat, misalnya Lion Air yang terpuruk namanya setelah terjadinya kecelakaan di Solo, tetapi Lion Air mampu menarik simpati kembali dengan bekerjasama dengan Metro TV dalam membantu bencana di Aceh dengan menyediakan tempat duduk gratis bagi sejumlah penumpang yang berangkat ke Aceh dan menyediakan pesawat khusus untuk mengangkut barang bantuan ke Aceh secara gratis.
Membangun citra perusahaan sehingga mendukung produknya, misalnya keluarga Sosrojoyo memegang nilai luhur yang diyakini, yaitu niat baik, tidak membahayakan kesehatan manusia dan tidak merusak lingkungan hidup. Akhirnya Soetjipto Sosrojoyo memperoleh Life Time Achievement dalam Marketing Award, dapat memperkokoh merek Teh Sosro yang saat ini merupakan merek peringkat pertama kategori teh dalam kemasan.
Metode hubungan masyarakat dan publisitas yang utama ialah publikasi, kegiatan penting, sponsor kegiatan, berita, acara, kegiatan pelayanan masyarakat, media identitas perusahaan, hubungan karyawan, penempatan produk pada program acara televisi atau film dan pelayanan informasi  telepon maupun internet.
Publikasi dilakukan perusahaan bergantung pada materi yang dipublikasikan untuk menjangkau dan mempengaruhi pasar sasaran. Publikasi meliputi laporan tahunan, laporan berkala, artikel, majalah perusahaan dan materi audiovisual. Publikasi Gaikindo lewat Internet mengenai Topten Indonesia Motor Vehicle Sales By Model Jan – Dec 2006, ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.14.

Gambar 1.14.

Pemberitaan yang mendukung perusahaan, produk dan orang-orangnya merupakan tugas humas.  Pemberitaan dapat disampaikan melalui surat kabar, majalah, televisi, suplier, konsumen kunci atau kegiatan karyawan perusahaan. Betadine merupakan Top Brand untuk obat luka. Pemberitaan Betadine terpilih sebagai antiseptik yang digunakan NASA dalam penerbangan luar angkasa menjadikan merek ini semakin dipercaya oleh masyarakat. Demikian pula pemberitaan busi NGK menyuplai Agen Tunggal Pemegang Merek  hampir seluruh dunia merupakan pemberitaan yang mempunyai andil untuk menjadikan NGK menjadi Top Brand di Indonesia.
Artikel feature merupakan tulisan sampai 3000 kata yang dipersiapkan untuk manfaat atau sasaran khusus. Misalnya perusahaan membangun fasilitas produksi yang baru agar diketahui oleh masyarakat, kamar dagang, pemerintah lokal dan perusahaa lain yang ada di sekitar lokasi dengan artikel feature yang dimuat oleh media lokal atau regional. Artikel feature biasanya berfokus pada implikasi atau dampak ekonomi dari tindakan perusahaan.
White Papers serupa dengan artikel feature, tetapi lebih bersifat teknis dan berfokus pada topik yang sangat khusus yang diminasi para pemegang saham perusahaan. White Papers mempromosikan sikap perusahaan pada produk penting atau isu pasar dan dapat digunakan untuk mempromosikan produk dan solusi yang dilakukan perusahaan. White Papers secara ekstensif dalam bidang teknologi informasi, yang perusahaan secara terus menerus bekerja untuk membangun standar dan menjaganya dengan inovasi teknologi.
Kegiatan dilakukan perusahaan untuk dapat menarik perhatian konsumen terhadap produk melalui seminar, peringatan hari jadi, pameran, kontes, dan kompetisi yang menjangkau masyarkat sasaran. Betadine Fatigon melakukan kegiatan dengan tema ”Spirit On The Spot” yang dilaksanakan di Jakarta, Bandung, Semarang dan Surabaya. Iklannya ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.15.

Gambar 1.15.

Sponsor digunakan perusahaan untuk memperkenalkan merek dan nama perusahaan. Perusahaan dapat mensponsori kegiatan olah raga dan budaya, baik dalam jangkauan lokal maupun internasional. Toyota mensponsori Jambore Nasional AXIC 2007 yang diadakan di Bandung. Iklannya ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.16.

Gambar 1.16.
Konferensi pers merupakan pertemuan dengan media pemberitaan untuk mengumumkan atau menanggapi suatu kejadian. Wartawan menerima undangan di suatu lokasi khusus dengan materi tertulis, foto, dan penampilan suatu produk yang diberikan kepada mereka. Materi multimedia dengan kualitas broadcast kadangkala juga dipersiapkan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan stasiun televisi agar dapat disiarkan. Konferensi pers dilakukan perusahaan ketika mengumumkan produk baru, hak paten, merger atai akuisisi, usaha filantropi dan perubahan manajemen. PT Astra Honda Motor (AHM), perusahaan manufaktur dan distribusi sepeda motor terbesar di Indonesia, melakukan konferensi pers bahwa  PT Astra Honda Motor akan menggelar kejuaraan balap motor one-make-race yang diberi nama “20 Million Honda Racing Championship 2007″(Gambar 1.17). Melalui kejuaraan ini, Honda ingin mengembangkan kemampuan para pembalap-pembalap muda yang ada di Indonesia. Honda berkeinginan untuk melatih para pembalap muda agar bisa mencapai tingkat kejuaraan nasional dan tujuan akhirnya adalah untuk membawa pembalap motor Indonesia ke tingkat Internasional

Gambar 1.17

Kegiatan pelayanan masyarakat dapat digunakan untuk menciptakan citra baik perusahaan terhadap masyarakat. Mulai dari pelayanan pendidikan, kesehatan sampai bakti sosial dengan memberikan sumbangan kepada masyarakat sekitar. “Sebagai perusahaan yang sudah tumbuh dan berkembang bersama masyarakat Indonesia selama lebih dari 70 tahun, Unilever memiliki komitmen untuk turut mendukung peningkatan kualitas hidup masyarakat Indonesia. Kegiatan Joint Social Activity ini merupakan salah satu wujud misi tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan terhadap masyarakat. Kami berharap kegiatan edukasi khususnya di bidang kesehatan dan kebersihan di SDN 1 Baros Pandeglang ini, dapat memberikan manfaat bagi masyarakat, sekaligus memupuk tali silaturahmi antara karyawan Unilever dan Indomaret dengan anggota masyarakat sekitarnya,” kata Randolf Simangunsong (Gambar 1.18). Demikian pula Toyota dengan peduli anak sekolah memberikan peralatan sekolah kepada anak-anak SD (Gambar 1.19).

(Gambar 1.18). Randolf dan Kepala Sekolah SD Baros Banten

Gambar 1.19.
Media identitas meliputi logo perusahaan, brosur, kartu nama, alat tulis, formulir, amplop, budaya perusahaan dan bangunan. Media identitas berfungsi untuk memperkenalkan perusahaan kepada masyarakat dengan lebih cepat.  Gudang Garam menggunakan logo dan tulisan yang terpampang pada balon udara, ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.20.

Gambar 1.20.

Penempatan produk dalam iklan pelayanan masyarakat di televisi atau cetak merupakan praktek yang tumbuh dengan cepat, khususnya untuk memberikan citra positif masyarakat terhadap produk atau perusahaan tersebut. Fortune Indonesia menampilkan iklan pelayanan masyarakat tentang tenaga kerja Indonesia dengan tema ”Komoditi berharga yang tidak dihargai”, ditunjukkan pada Gambar 1.21.

Gambar 1.21.

Hubungan karyawan merupakan hal yang sangat penting sebagai hubungan investor dan masyarakat. Aktivitas hubungan karyawan menyediakan dukungan secara organisasi untuk menghormati pekerjaan dan kehidupannya. Hubungan karyawan mencakup aktivitas pemberitaan internal, program pelatihan dan pengembangan, program bantuan karyawan dan program sumberdaya manusia.
Perencanaan humas mencakup hal-hal berikut ini :  menetapkan sasaran humas, memilih pesan-pesan dan wahana-wahana yang  layak dan mengevaluasi hasil-hasil humas.
Hubungan masyarakat dipadu periklanan yang sukses di Indonesia adalah publikasi kembar dari Toyota Avanza dan Daihatsu Xenia. Demikian pula Suzuki APV. Rinso dengan jemuran terpanjang dan Lifebuoy dengan Berbagi Sehat.

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Business strategy of Prophet Muhammad

9 11 2008
Features are the characteristics that complement the functions of primary products. Special products on time is jahiliyah jewelry from gold, silver and silk clothing. Before the Prophet Muhammad to be the gold jewelry and silk clothing can be used by men and women. From Ibn Umar ra, Messenger sawmemakai ring of gold or silver rings and dijadikannya face in the next palm graven where he was writing “Muhammad Messenger of Allah.” Many people start using the ring as well. After he saw people memakaicincin such, he and discard the ring and said: “I will not wear it again for ever.” Then he put a silver ring. People also began to wear a silver ring. Ibn Umar said: After the Prophet of Allah, those who wear the ring is Abu Bakr, and Umar, and Utsman, the ring until it fell and lost by Utsman to the wells at Aris.

This product is intended for women and for sale. From Abdullah bin Umar pleased, he said: “He saw never send silk or silk clothing to the mix Umar pleased, and he saw something that used by Umar. His sayings, “I submit to you the clothes, not to use it. Who will wear it is the people who are not lucky for him. Kukirimkan to you is that you can take advantage of, namely, that you are selling. “(Bukhari).

Style describes the appearance and feeling for customers. From Aiman pleased, he said: I am well she, there are clothes that women terbikin of yarn for five Dirham. The words she: “Look sahaya women, see it! He felt as regal wear it in the house. I never wear clothing that period in the Messenger of Allah Every woman who wants to primp in Medina, always send a messenger to me to meminjaminya “(Bukhari).

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